Definition of swar in Hindi and English ; स्वर की परिभाषा एवं वर्गीकरण

In this article, we are going to learn about what is swar(vowels), swaron ki matrayen and the classification of vowels. Let’s start with the recap of swar and vyanjan.

Definition of swar in Hindi

Definition of Swar in Hindi

SWAR(VOWEL):-  The characters which we can speak freely called swar like -

अ आ इ ई उ  ऊ ऋ ए ऐ ओ औ अं अः

अं and  अः are called Ayogvah (अयोगवाह).


The characters which we speak with the help of swar or swar ki matrayen called vyanjan. like -

कवर्ग-  क्   ख्   ग्   घ्   ङ्

चवर्ग-   च्   छ्   ज्   झ्   ञ्

टवर्ग-  ट्    ठ्    ड्    ढ्    ण्

           (ड़् ढ्)

तवर्ग-  त्    थ्    द्    ध्     न्

पवर्ग-  प्     फ्   ब्    भ्    म्

          य्      र्    ल्    व्

          श्     ष्     स्    ह

         क्ष्      त्र्      ज्ञ्    श्र्

An oblique line placed under the consonant, called halant. Which indicates that consonant is devoid of vowels or it needs help.

Definition of Swar in Hindi

बिना किसी अड़चन के और बिना किसी अक्षर की सहायता के स्वतंत्र रूप से उच्चारित होने वाले वर्णों को स्वर कहते हैं।

Characters that are pronounced independently without any hindrance and without the help of any other letter are called vowel.  

  • The number of vowels is 11.  
  • Vowels are independent and help in the pronunciation of         consonants.

       स्वर की मात्राएँ ( character quantities)

When vowels help or are used with a consonant, their form changes to what we call vowel quantities(स्वर की मात्राएँ). The character quantities  of each vowel varies. There is no quantity (मात्रा) of अ.








क्+ि= कि





क्+ ृ =कृ



क्+ै= कै





( ं )

क्+( ं )=कं


( ः) 

 क्+( ः) =कः

  • matra vowel sound which follows the consonant is ा, ी, ो, ौ 
  • मात्रा which precedes (come first) the consonants is ि 
  • मात्रा which we put below the consonants(subscript) is ु, ू, ृ 
  • मात्रा which we put above the head stroke or headline(superscript) is ै, े, ुं

 शिरोरेखा:- The line which we put on the top of the characters called shiro rekha or head stroke or headline. 

Now you can write any word like

 गीता =  ग् +ी+त्+ ा



 If two consonants occur consecutively with a consonant, then the first vowel comes as its own matra form and the second vowel comes in its original form.

like महुआ =म्+अ+ह्+ु +आ 

   After ह् two vowels came consecutively. ु is the first vowel and came in matra form.  आ is a second vowel came in original form.

स्वरों का उच्चारण स्थान

The number of native pronunciation places in Hindi is 5.Throat, palate, retroflex , teeth, lips but vowels are pronounced from a total of 6 numbers.

उच्चारण स्थान 






अ,  आ  



इ ,ई 



उ , ऊ  


 hard palate


कंठ तालव्य 


ए, ऐ 



 ओ ,औ

 स्वरों का वर्गीकरण - Classification of vowels

Vowels have classified on the different bases:-

On the basis of pronunciation time

On this basis swar has classified in 3 groups hrasva, deergh and plut swar.

 ह्रस्व स्वर Hrasva swar or short vowel 

  • Vowels that take the least time to pronounce, called Hrisva swar.
  • These vowels called independent vowel because other vowels are not responsible for their construction. The pronunciation of Hrasva swar takes a quantity(मात्रा) of time. Therefore, they are also called as a one quantity (एकमात्रिक) swar.
  • अ ,इ , उ ,ऋ 
  • These vowels are also called short(लघु ) or root(मूल ) vowels,

संधि/दीर्घ/गुरु स्वर SANDHI /DEERGH/ GURU

  • Vowels whose pronunciation takes 2 times longer than short vowel or hriswa swar, called deergh swar or long vowels.
  • Those vowels whose pronunciation needs to be taken help of the original vowels, called sandhi swar. 
  • These vowels take the time equal to 2 matra that is why they are known as द्विमात्रिक स्वर(double quantity). There are two types of sandhi or long vowels -
मूल दीर्घ स्वर (mool deergh swar)

These vowels are formed by the two homogeneous vowel or vowels spoken from the same place,called mool deergh swar or homogenous vowels (सजातीय स्वर ).

like :- अ +अ =आ 

          इ +इ =ई 

          उ +उ =ऊ 

Sanyukt swar(संयुक्त स्वर )

Vowels that are formed by two exogenous or different vowel or vowels spoken from different places, are called composite or sanyukt swar.

like अ +इ =ए 

अ +ए =ऐ 

अ +उ =ओ 

अ +ओ =औ

Plut(प्लुत ) swar

  • Vowels which take longer than long vowels, are called plut is used in calling someone or in drama dialogues.
  • This vowel look like a three digit(३ ).like-
  • ओ३म्,     मो३हन 

On the basis of use of tongue

On this basis vowels have classified in 3 categories agra,madhya and pashch swar.

Agra swarअग्र

The vowels in which tongue’s front part works are called front or agra

इ ,ई ,ए ,ऐ ,ऋ 

मध्य स्वर (middle vowel)

The vowels in which the middle part of the tongue works,are called middle

पश्च स्वर (back swar)

The vowel in which the posterior part of the tongue works, are called back

आ ,उ ,ऊ ,ओ ,औ ,ॉ

On the basis of opening of mouth 

Open(विवृत्त ) swar

The vowels in which the opening of the mouth is completely open are called open(विवृत्त )

अर्द्ध विवृत्तhalf-open vowel

If the opening of the mouth(buccal) is half  open while pronouncing the vowel, called half open (अर्द्ध विवृत्त स्वर ) अ ,ए, औ

अर्द्ध संवृत half close

If the mouth remains half closed while pronouncing the vowels ,it is called half close  ए ,ओ 

संवृत्त स्वर (close)

If the mouth is almost completely closed while pronouncing the vowel called close   इ ,ई ,उ ,ऊ

On the basis of   position of lips

Avrittmukhi(आवृत्तमुखी ) 

If the position of lips is not circular while pronouncing the vowel is called non-circular or  अ ,आ ,इ ,ई ,ए ,ऐ ,ऋ 

circular(वृत्तमुखी )

If the position of lips is  circular while pronouncing the vowel is called circular or   उ ,ऊ ,ओ ,औ ॉ

On the basis of  air comes out from the mouth or nose  position of lips

निरनुनासिक मौखिक niranunasik vowel

The vowels in which the air comes out only from the mouth, called niranunasik   अ ,आ ,इ ,ई ,ए ,ऐ ,ऋ,उ ,ऊ ,ओ ,औ

Anunasik(अनुनासिक)  vowel

 The vowels in which air comes out of the mouth as well as the nose,called nasal अँ ,इँ आदि  



Also Read :- What is noun in Hindi