In this article, we are going to learn about what is swar(vowels), swaron ki matrayen and the classification of vowels. Let’s start with the recap of swar and vyanjan.
Definition of Swar in Hindi
SWAR(VOWEL):- The characters which we can speak freely called swar like -
अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ऋ ए ऐ ओ औ अं अः
अं and अः are called Ayogvah (अयोगवाह).
The characters which we speak with the help of swar or swar ki matrayen called vyanjan. like -
कवर्ग- क् ख् ग् घ् ङ्
चवर्ग- च् छ् ज् झ् ञ्
टवर्ग- ट् ठ् ड् ढ् ण्
तवर्ग- त् थ् द् ध् न्
पवर्ग- प् फ् ब् भ् म्
य् र् ल् व्
श् ष् स् ह
क्ष् त्र् ज्ञ् श्र्
An oblique line placed under the consonant, called halant. Which indicates that consonant is devoid of vowels or it needs help.
Definition of Swar in Hindi
बिना किसी अड़चन के और बिना किसी अक्षर की सहायता के स्वतंत्र रूप से उच्चारित होने वाले वर्णों को स्वर कहते हैं।
Characters that are pronounced independently without any hindrance and without the help of any other letter are called vowel.
- The number of vowels is 11.
- Vowels are independent and help in the pronunciation of consonants.
स्वर की मात्राएँ ( character quantities)
When vowels help or are used with a consonant, their form changes to what we call vowel quantities(स्वर की मात्राएँ). The character quantities of each vowel varies. There is no quantity (मात्रा) of अ.
क्+ ृ =कृ
( ं )
क्+( ं )=कं
क्+( ः) =कः
- matra vowel sound which follows the consonant is ा, ी, ो, ौ
- मात्रा which precedes (come first) the consonants is ि
- मात्रा which we put below the consonants(subscript) is ु, ू, ृ
- मात्रा which we put above the head stroke or headline(superscript) is ै, े, ुं
शिरोरेखा:- The line which we put on the top of the characters called shiro rekha or head stroke or headline.
Now you can write any word like
गीता = ग् +ी+त्+ ा
If two consonants occur consecutively with a consonant, then the first vowel comes as its own matra form and the second vowel comes in its original form.
like महुआ =म्+अ+ह्+ु +आ
After ह् two vowels came consecutively. ु is the first vowel and came in matra form. आ is a second vowel came in original form.
स्वरों का उच्चारण स्थान
The number of native pronunciation places in Hindi is 5.Throat, palate, retroflex , teeth, lips but vowels are pronounced from a total of 6 numbers.
उ , ऊ
स्वरों का वर्गीकरण - Classification of vowels
Vowels have classified on the different bases:-
On the basis of pronunciation time
On this basis swar has classified in 3 groups hrasva, deergh and plut swar.
ह्रस्व स्वर Hrasva swar or short vowel
संधि/दीर्घ/गुरु स्वर SANDHI /DEERGH/ GURU
- Vowels whose pronunciation takes 2 times longer than short vowel or hriswa swar, called deergh swar or long vowels.
- Those vowels whose pronunciation needs to be taken help of the original vowels, called sandhi swar.
- These vowels take the time equal to 2 matra that is why they are known as द्विमात्रिक स्वर(double quantity). There are two types of sandhi or long vowels -
मूल दीर्घ स्वर (mool deergh swar)
These vowels are formed by the two homogeneous vowel or vowels spoken from the same place,called mool deergh swar or homogenous vowels (सजातीय स्वर ).
like :- अ +अ =आ
इ +इ =ई
उ +उ =ऊ
Sanyukt swar(संयुक्त स्वर )
Vowels that are formed by two exogenous or different vowel or vowels spoken from different places, are called composite or sanyukt swar.
like अ +इ =ए
अ +ए =ऐ
अ +उ =ओ
अ +ओ =औ
Plut(प्लुत ) swar
On the basis of use of tongue
On this basis vowels have classified in 3 categories agra,madhya and pashch swar.
The vowels in which tongue’s front part works are called front or agra vowels.like-
इ ,ई ,ए ,ऐ ,ऋ
मध्य स्वर (middle vowel)
The vowels in which the middle part of the tongue works,are called middle vowel.like-अ
पश्च स्वर (back swar)
The vowel in which the posterior part of the tongue works, are called back vowel.like
आ ,उ ,ऊ ,ओ ,औ ,ॉ
On the basis of opening of mouth
Open(विवृत्त ) swar
The vowels in which the opening of the mouth is completely open are called open(विवृत्त ) vowels.like आ
अर्द्ध विवृत्तhalf-open vowel
If the opening of the mouth(buccal) is half open while pronouncing the vowel, called half open (अर्द्ध विवृत्त स्वर ) vowel.like अ ,ए, औ
अर्द्ध संवृत half close
If the mouth remains half closed while pronouncing the vowels ,it is called half close vowel.like- ए ,ओ
संवृत्त स्वर (close)
If the mouth is almost completely closed while pronouncing the vowel called close vowel.like इ ,ई ,उ ,ऊ
On the basis of position of lips
If the position of lips is not circular while pronouncing the vowel is called non-circular or vowel.like अ ,आ ,इ ,ई ,ए ,ऐ ,ऋ
If the position of lips is circular while pronouncing the vowel is called circular or vowel.like उ ,ऊ ,ओ ,औ ॉ
On the basis of air comes out from the mouth or nose position of lips
निरनुनासिक मौखिक niranunasik vowel
The vowels in which the air comes out only from the mouth, called niranunasik vowel.like अ ,आ ,इ ,ई ,ए ,ऐ ,ऋ,उ ,ऊ ,ओ ,औ
The vowels in which air comes out of the mouth as well as the nose,called nasal vowels.like अँ ,इँ आदि
Also Read :- What is noun in Hindi